Intervals: Are the incremental building blocks from which melodies are constructed.An interval is also the distance between two notes. The smallest interval in Western music is the half step (the distance from one fret to another on guitar). All intervals can be measured by the amount of half steps they contain, but the most common way to identify intervals is to refer to them by their proper names. The names of intervals are bases on the scale steps of the major scale.
**Here is an example of the intervals of the C Major Scale:
Written on the staff are two octaves of the C major scale, with the scale steps written above. The brackets below the staff measure the distance between the tonic and the other notes of the scale. Intervals within the first octave of the scale are called simple intervals. Notice that the name of these intervals directly correspond to the scale steps. For instance, the distance between the tonic and the second scale step is called a major 2nd; the distance between the tonic and the third step is called a major 3rd ect. Once the octave is reached, higher number take over. These "beyond the octave" intervals are called compound intervals. In all cases, the number (2nd, 5th, 7th, ect.) describes the interval quantity (number of scale steps); and the adjective (major, minor, perfect, ect.) describes the interval quality (number of half steps).